February 1, 1861
Texas became the seventh state to secede from the Union when a state convention voted 166 to 8 in favor of the measure. Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy and was replaced in March 1861 by his lieutenant governor. The Texas Ordinance of Secession reads, in part:

“In all the non-slave-holding States, in violation of that good faith and comity which should exist between entirely distinct nations, the people have formed themselves into a great sectional party, now strong enough in numbers to control the affairs of each of those States, based upon the unnatural feeling of hostility to these Southern States and their beneficent and patriarchal system of African slavery, proclaiming the debasing doctrine of the equality of all men, irrespective of race or color—a doctrine at war with nature, in opposition to the experience of mankind, and in violation of the plainest revelations of the Divine Law. They demand the abolition of negro slavery throughout the confederacy, the recognition of political equality between the white and the negro races, and avow their determination to press on their crusade against us, so long as a negro slave remains in these States.”


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